Lesson 13. Nouns and Cases in Russian. Dative and Accusative

Last week we started a new topic in our adventure of mastering Russian. If you remember we were talking about cases. Once again, a short reminder ‑ a case is a set of endings to indicate words’ functions and their relationship to the rest of the words in the sentence. There are six cases in Russian, and so far we have got to know two of them – Nominative and Genitive. Today we will learn two more – Dative and Accusative.

Dative Case

Dative case is used when you want to indicate an indirect object toward which (or toward whom if that’s a human) the action is directed. Now I suppose it might be a tiny bit too complicated to comprehend. Nouns in Dative case answer questions Кому? (to whom?) or Чему? (to what?). Let’s take a look at some examples.

Examples:

I give my sister a book.

Я даю моей сестре книгу.

Words in bold are in Dative case.

With prepositions  к (toward, to) and по (along) a noun is always used in Dative Case.

Examples:

Я иду по дороге.

I am walking along the road.

There are also certain verbs that would require you to use nouns only in Dative Case. For example, such verbs as to help (помогать) or to call (звонить).

Example:

Я помогаю моей маме.

I help my mother.

Я звоню моему отцу.

I am calling my dad.

As with Genitive nouns in Dative Case have some endings patterns that you will have to learn.

Please see the table below.

Gender Nominative

кто? (who?) что? (what?)

Dative

кому? (to whom?) чему? (to what?)

Endings

Nom. – Dat.

Masculine студент (student)

герой (hero)

учитель (teacher)

санаторий (sanatorium)

студенту

герою

учителю

санаторию

–  to

-й to

-ь to

-ий to -ию

Neuter окно (window)

море (sea)

здание (building)

окну

морю

зданию

-о to

-е to

-ие to -ию

Feminine

 

школа (school)

деревня (village)

лошадь (horse)

академия (academy)

школе

деревне

лошади

академии

-а to

-я to

-ь to

-ия to -ии

Plural студенты (students)

здания (buildings)

студентам

зданиям

-ы to –ам

-е to -ам

Accusative Case

The Accusative Case indicates a direct object, which is the object of the action of the verb. The Accusative Case of a noun with a transitive verb denotes the object to which the action passes over and answers the questions кого? (whom?), что? (what?).

A classic example is Я люблю русский язык (I love Russian). Let’s take a look at the endings.

Gender Nominative

кто? (who?) что? (what?)

Accusative

кого? (whom?) что? (what?)

Endings

Nom. – Acc.

For inanimate masculine nouns the form of the accusative case coincides with the nominative:
Masculine

inanimate

стол

музей

словарь

санаторий

стол (table)

музей (museum)

словарь (dictionary)

санаторий (sanatorium)

–  to

-й to

-ь to

-ий to -ий

Masculine

animate

студент

герой

учитель

студента (student)

героя (hero)

учителя (teacher)

–  to

-й to

-ь to

For all neuter nouns the form of the accusative case coincides with the nominative:
Neuter окно

солнце

здание

окно (window)

солнце (sun)

здание (building)

-о to

-е to

-ие to -ие

For all feminine nouns ending in -ь, the form of the accusative case coincides with the nominative:
Feminine

animate and inanimate

лошадь

площадь

лошадь (horse)

площадь (square)

-ь to
Feminine

animate and inanimate

студентка

школа

деревня

академия

студентку (student)

школу (school)

деревню (village)

академию (academy)

-а to

-я to

-ия to -ию

You should always keep in mind that all feminine and masculine nouns ending with  -а, -я in the nominative case  will take endings -у, -ю in the accusative case

Examples:

женщина – женщину (woman), тётя – тётю (aunt)

мужчина – мужчину (man), дядя – дядю (uncle)

All these endings might seem overwhelming but after some practice you will manage to remember them all and even use correctly in sentences. The table below can help you a bit. There you will find a list of verbs which can be used with Dative and/or Accusative cases.

Verbs Accusative

что? (what?)

Dative

кому? (to whom?)

чему? (to what?)

 
давать (to give)

отдавать (to give back)

дарить (to present)

передавать (to pass)

читать (to read)

показывать (to show)

строить (to build)

готовить (to prepare)

переводить (to translate)

писать (to write)

покупать (to buy)

объяснять (to explain)

предлагать (to offer)

сообщать (to inform)

рассказывать (to tell)

книгу (book)

словарь (dictionary)

машину (car)

здание (building)

письмо (letter)

музей (museum)

дом (house)

обед (lunch)

песню (song)

поэму (poem)

соль (salt)

задачу (problem)

помощь (help)

новость (news)

сказку (fairy tale)

Студенту (student)

Учителю (teacher)

Герою (hero)

санаторию (sanatorium)

маме (mother)

отцу (father)

дяде (uncle)

сыну (son)

иностранцу (foreigner)

девушке (girl)

бабушке (grandmother)

ребёнку (child)

другу (friend)

подруге (girlfriend)

дочери (daughter)

In the next table you will find the verbs that can be used only with nouns in Dative case.

Verbs Dative

кому? (to whom?) чему? (to what?)

верить (to believe)

помогать (to help)

мешать (to disturb)

принадлежать (to belong)

звонить (to call)

нравиться (to like)

радоваться (to be glad)

отцу (father)

герою (hero)

учителю (teacher)

санаторию (sanatorium)

маме (mother)

тёте (aunt)

жизни (life)

And finally, the verbs which are used only with nouns in accusative case.

Transitive verbs Accusative

кого? (whom?) что? (what?)

готовить (to prepare) что?

делать (to do) что?

изучать (to study) что?

читать (to read) что?

писать (to write) что?

сообщать (to inform) что?

рассказывать (to tell) что?

решать (to solve) что?

покупать (to buy) что?

строить (to build) что?

нести (to carry) что?

видеть (to see) кого? что?

любить (to love) кого? что?

слушать (to listen) кого? что?

слышать (to hear) кого? что?

спрашивать (to ask) кого? что?

помнить (to remember) кого? что?

вспоминать (to recollect) кого? что?

запоминать (to remember) кого? что?

забывать (to forget) кого? что?

узнавать (to recognize) кого? что?

встречать (to meet) кого? что?

обед (lunch)

стол (table)

музей (museum)

санаторий (sanatorium)

словарь (dictionary)

новость (news)

лошадь (horse)

окно (window)

письмо (letter)

солнце (sun)

здание (building)

студента (student)

героя (hero)

учителя (teacher)

студентку (student)

школу (school)

песню (song)

деревню (village)

академию (academy)

Your task will be to create 50 sentences using nouns in Dative and Accusative cases. The verbs from above tables will be of great help.

This entry was posted in Learn Russian. Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>