Lesson 6: Basic Russian Phrases and Personal Pronouns

Last time we talked about gender of Russian nouns. Today we will proceed with Russian pronouns. More specifically about one of pronouns’ groups, such as personal pronouns.

Like nouns pronouns in the Russian language depend largely on the case. Today, in order to get an idea we will start with the personal pronouns in the nominative case. It is the form of a pronoun (or a noun) used in the subject or predicate nominative.

Below you will find a table that represents Russian personal pronouns in the Nominative. Usually they replace the name of a person of an object. They answer the question Who? Or What?

Table 1. Personal Pronouns in the Nominative Case


кто? (who?)

что? (what?)

я – I Singular
ты – you Singular
он – he Singular
она – she Singular
оно –  it Singular
мы – we Plural
вы – you Plural
Вы – you Formal “you”
они they Plural

We will need to know them by heart before we start on Present Tense in our next lesson.

But today I would like you to pay special attention to the personal pronouns он, она, оно. They are used to indicate the person of a man or object spoken about, 3rd person.

Here you can apply your knowledge of gender in the Russian language.

Он replaces masculine nouns.

Она replaces feminine nouns.

Оно replaces neuter nouns.

For more information see table 2.

Table 2. Use of the Personal Pronouns он, она, оно.


автобус – bus 

банк – bank

билет – ticket

брат – brother

вагон – carriage

город – city

дом – house

друг – friend

отец – father

парк – park

стол – table

стул – chair

суп – soup

сын – son

вода – water 

рыба – fish

буква – letter

сумка – bag

лампа – lamp

улица – street

страна – country

шапка – cap

группа – group

машина – car

комната – room

земля – earth

песня – song

неделя – week

окно – window 

утро – morning

лицо – face

озеро – lake

слово – word

место – place

молоко – milk

письмо – letter

яблоко – apple

дерево – tree

кресло – armchair

море – sea

поле – field

солнце – sun

Examples of use:

This is a lamp. It is red.

Это лампа. Она красная.

This is a table. It is black.

Это стол. Он чёрный.

This is an apple. It is yellow.

Это яблоко. Оно жёлтое.

As you can see the English pronoun “it” was replaced with different Russian pronouns, based on the gender of the nouns they replace. Additionally the endings of the adjective change, too.


Translate into Russian the following sentences:

  1. This is a house. It is big.
  2. This is a lake. It is large.
  3. This is a car. It is white.
  4. This is a bus. It is small.
  5. This is a tree. It is green.

You will find the correct answers in the comments section.

Basic Russian Phrases

Here are a few Russian phrases that might be helpful in your daily communication.

Повторите, пожалуйста. Please repeat what you said.)
Говорите, пожалуйста, помедленнее. Please, speak more slowly.)
Скажите, пожалуйста, как пройти до метро / остановки / театра / музея Please tell me how to get to the subway station / bus stop / theater / museum
Спасибо. Thank you.
Спасибо большое. Thanks a lot!)
Извините, пожалуйста, я Вас не понимаю. Excuse me; I didn’t understand what you said.)
Поздравляю! Congratulations!)
Желаю удачи! Good luck!)
Ничего. No problem, it’s all right
Всего хорошего! All the best!)
Приятного аппетита! Bon appetit!

This is all for today. In our next lesson we will learn about Present Tense and start building short sentences on our own.

3 thoughts on “Lesson 6: Basic Russian Phrases and Personal Pronouns”

  1. Answers to the exercise can be found below:

    1. Это дом. Он большой.
    2. Это озеро. Оно большое.
    3. Это машина. Она белая.
    4. Это автобус. Он маленький.
    5. Это дерево. Оно зеленое.

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